Mulla Sadra on The Human Soul and its Becoming

By Zailan Moris 
[School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia]

Transcendent Philosophy / An International Journal for Comparative Philosophy and Mysticism / Volume 11. December 2010

The focus of this article is on Mulla Sadra’s view of the nature of the human soul and its becoming, a subject that has received extensive and detailed treatments in Mulla Sadra’s various writings such as the al-Asfar al-‘arba‘ah, al-Shawahid alrububiyah, Kitab al-mabda’ wa al-ma‘ad and al-Hikmah al- ‘arshiyyah. The following treatment of Mulla Sadra’s view of the soul and its becoming involves both a discussion of his fundamental principles and ideas on the subject, as well as his masterly adoption and incoporation of principles and doctrines drawn from the sources of revelation, i.e. the Qur’an and Hadith, the intellectual illuminations and mystical ‘unveilings’ of the Sufis and gnostics (hukama’), and the rational and logical conclusions of the philosophers or falasifah.

Introduction

Sadr al-Din Shirazi (979-1050 A.H./1571-1640 A.D.) who is better known by the name of Mulla Sadra is regarded as one of the most illustrious figures of later Islamic Philosophy and the founder of a major school in the Islamic philosophical tradition, al-hikmah almuta‘aliyah or transcendent philosophy or wisdom. 1 He is generally regarded by Islamic philosophers and scholars to have achieved a successful synthesis of the three important sources of human knowledge, that of revelation (wahy), intellectual illumination or mystical ‘unveiling’ (kashf) and discursive thought (fikr) in his philosophical writings. 2 In Mulla Sadra’s philosophy, revealed principles, rational arguments and intellectual intuitions or illuminations can be reconciled and unified to create a coherent and cohesive philosophical perspective that is capable of shedding light on such fundamental issues such as the nature and structure of reality, the nature of God, the nature of the human soul, the purpose of creation, etc. The focus of this article is on Mulla Sadra’s view of the nature of the human soul and its becoming, a subject that has received extensive and detailed treatments in Mulla Sadra’s various writings such as the al-Asfar al-‘arba‘ah, al-Shawahid al-rububiyah, Kitab al-mabda’ wa alma‘ad and al-Hikmah al-‘arshiyyah. The following treatment of Mulla Sadra’s view of the soul and its becoming involves both a discussion of his fundamental principles and ideas on the subject, as well as his masterly adoption and incoporation of principles and doctrines drawn from the sources of revelation, i.e. the Qur’an and Hadith, the intellectual illuminations and mystical ‘unveilings’ of the Sufis and gnostics (hukama’), and the rational and logical conclusions of the philosophers or falasifah. 3

The Nature of the Human Soul and its Becoming 

In Mulla Sadra's philosophy, the soul (al-nafs) is a single reality with various faculties and functions. Through the process of transubstantial motion (al-harakah al-jawhariyah) 4 the soul which first appears as the body (al-jism) becomes the vegetative soul (al-nafs al-nabatiyah), then the animal soul (al-nafs al-hayawaniyah) and finally, the human soul (alnafs al-insaniyyah). 5 These various degrees or stages of development are considered to occur from within the substance of the original ‘body’.

In Mulla Sadra’s view, the human sperm is a mineral object but potentially a plant. When it develops in the womb, the sperm becomes actually a plant and potentially an animal. At birth the human infant is actually an animal and potentially a human being. As the infant matures and becomes an adult, he is actually a human being and potentially either an angel or a follower of the devil. 6

According to Mulla Sadra, all the various stages of the development of the soul are latent or potential within the original substance of the human sperm. Through the process of transubstantial motion, the soul traverses through the various levels or degrees of being until it finally attains complete independence of all matter and potentiality and is capable of enjoying immortal life. Thus, for Mulla Sadra although, the human soul is brought into being with the body, it possesses the spiritual subsistence which through the process of transubstantial motion enables it to attain a level of being which is completely independent of the body. 7

At each stage of its journey of becoming or ascent from a lower and less intense mode of being to a higher and more intense mode of being, the soul acquires a new set of faculties commensurable to its particular level or mode of being. 8 To illustrate, as a mineral, it has the faculty of preserving its form and as a plant, it possesses the faculties of breeding, growth and the transformation of foreign substances into its own form. Then, as an animal, it develops the faculties of motion and various forms of desire and the external senses. As a higher animal, the inner faculties of memory and imagination are added to its present set of faculties. Finally, as a human being, the five inner faculties are developed. These are the faculties of the perception of forms (hiss al-mushtarik), the apprehension (wahm) which perceives meanings, fantasy (khayal) which preserves forms, memory (dha>kirah) which preserves meanings and the faculties of imagination (mutakhayilah) and thought (mutafakkirah). 9 Mulla Sadra asserts that throughout these various stages of development, it is the one single soul which is involved. The faculties are not things added to the soul, rather they are the potential aspects of the soul becoming actualised. 

If the human body is the crowning achievement of material creation since it synthesizes the three kingdoms - the mineral, vegetative and animal - then, the human soul occupies an extraordinary or special position in the whole of the created order. 10 Although the human soul is of a lowly birth contaminated with matter and potentiality, it is capable of entering into all levels of cosmic existence without losing its individuality. Created with the body, the soul however is immortal with a transcendental orientation. In the al-Shawahid al-rububiyyah, Mulla Sadra states that although the human soul is of a humble beginning, it is pregnant with unlimited possibilities. It is a divine mystery, a rare mixture of divinity and dust, a meeting point where the creature and creator converge and a link between the finite and Infinite. 11

Death means a disintegration of the body but for the immaterial and immortal human soul, it implies an entry into eternal life and a freedom from the bondages of matter and potentiality. 12 If the Muslim Peripatetics such as Ibn Rushd consider only the intellectual part of the human soul to be immortal, Mulla Sadra in agreement with certain Sufis, considers the faculty of imagination (mutakhaliyah) to be immortal too and capable of being independent of the body. 13 Upon the death of the body, the imaginative faculty, like the intellectual part of the soul, will enjoy an independent form of life of its own.

Mulla Sadra likens the situation or condition of man in this world to that of an embryo in a womb. 14 While the child is in the mother’s womb, he is actually in this world but he is separated from it by the walls of the womb and does not know of its real existence in the world. Similiarly, while man is in this world, he is actually in the next world but the ‘walls’ of this world or the limited consciousness of the true condition of his own being confines him to this world only.

According to Mulla Sadra, on leaving this world or at the moment of death, the soul carries with it its imaginal or subtle body (jism mithali). The imaginal body is that which the individual has acquired or created from all its modes of being, thinking and acting in this world. 15 It is the imaginal body that must grow to maturity in the posthumous state. The resurrection of the subtle or acquired body by the soul constitutes the lesser resurrection (al-qiyama al-sughra). The greater resurrection (alqiyama al-kubra) involves the passage of the subtle body (upon its eventual growth to maturity) from the imaginal world (‘alam al-mithal) to the spiritual world. 16

For Mulla Sadra, bodily resurrection or al-ma‘ad al-jasmani mentioned in the Quran and Hadith does not mean the resurrection of the physical body which is of gross matter, rather it is the resurrection of the body acquired (jism muktasab) by the soul through all its modes of thinking, acting and being while on earth. The acquired body is the imaginal body (jism mithali) which possesses the form of the human body but is of a subtle substance or matter. The principle of human identity and individuality is the soul and not the body. 17 It is the soul which individualizes the body and not the reverse. Mulla Sadra makes use of the fact that man’s physical body changes in the course of his earthly life, from infancy to adulthood and finally to old age, without these changes in any way destroying the unity or identity of the individual man, to support his view that it is the soul which is the principle of human identity and individuality and not the body.

Death is the passage of the soul from the sensible world to the imaginal world (‘alam al-mithal). The imaginal world is an isthmus (barzakh) between the sensible world and the spiritual world. A barzakh is defined as a separation between two neighbouring objects in which neither object predominates over the other and in which the virtualities of both objects are present and which enables it to link the two objects while at the same time separating them. 18 The example that is often given to illustrate the idea of a barzakh is the line that divides shadow from sunlight. This line which is neither shadow nor sunlight is intermediate between the two and exists by virtue of the two realities that it separates.

The imaginal world is a world which is intermediate between the World of the Spirits (‘alam al-arwah) and the World of Bodies (‘alam al-ajsam). Unlike the World of the Spirits which is constituted of simple and luminuous beings which are separate from matter and the World of Bodies which is constituted of compound and tenebrous beings which are immersed in matter; the imaginal world is constituted of ‘suspended’ forms or images (al-amthal al-mu‘allaqah). 19 The forms or images of the imaginal world are often compared to the image reflected in a mirror. 20 Like the image reflected in a mirror, the imaginal forms are viewed as both real and unreal, existent and non-existent. The ambiguous nature of the imaginal forms is due to its intermediate position between the pure spirits and the material bodies. In Mulla Sadra’s view, although the imaginal forms are suspended between the World of Spirits and the World of Bodies, it is a grade or level of being, existing both macrocosmically and microcosmically. 21 Dreams testify to the existence of the imaginal world and it is in this world that the visions of prophets and saints occur and certain eschatological events take place. Since the imaginal world is intermediate between the World of the Spirits and the World of the Bodies, for anything to descend from the spiritual world to the material world or from the material world to ascend to the spiritual world, it must first traverse or pass through the imaginal world or be imaginalized or assume an imaginal form. For example, before prophetic revelation is given a sensory form, it is first given an imaginal form. 

By making use of the principle of ‘the possibility of that which is superior’ (imkan al-ashraf), Mulla Sadra asserts that nothing can exist at the lowest level of being unless it has passed through the upper levels or grades of being and likewise, nothing moves to a higher grade of being without passing through the intermediate levels of being. In other words, that which exists at a lower level of being, necessarily exists at a higher grade of being and the existence of a being at a lower level of cosmic reality is evidence of the existence of that being at a higher level. For example, the being of man in this corporeal world, necessitates the being of man in the intermediary world of souls and the latter, necessitates the being of man in the spiritual world. 22 Thus, every existent in this world or every quiddity that is given existence in the corporeal world also has an existence or is given a form or manifestation in the imaginal world and in the spiritual world respectively. Every existent quiddity has a triple existence or manifestation or form: a corporeal existence or form, an imaginal and a spiritual or intelligible form or existence.

The three cosmic levels of being: the spiritual (jabarut), imaginal (malakut) and corporeal (mulk), exist in man in a unitive and synthetic manner. Man is constituted of a spirit (ruh), a soul (nafs) and a body (jism). Since nothing can exist at the lowest level of being unless it has passed through the higher levels of being and conversely, nothing moves to a higher level of being without having passed through the intermediary level; all processes of descent and ascent of being, necessarily involves traversing the imaginal world. Thus, in man's return journey (al-ma‘ad) to God, he has to traverse the imaginal world before he can be born into or enter the spiritual world. The human soul experiences three births: the birth into the sensible world, the imaginal world and the spiritual world respectively. 23 In each world, his soul will project a ‘body’ for itself, commensurable with its own condition of being and the world to which it belongs. The relation between the soul and the ‘body’ which it projects, is similiar to the relation between an object and its shadow or between an antecedent and its consequent. 24 Neither the shadow nor the consequent possesses an independent existence of its own; the existence of the shadow is dependent on the object and the consequent, on the antecedent. Likewise, the body is dependent on the soul for its existence. At every stage, the individuality or unity of the subject is preserved since it is the soul which is the principle of human indentity and individuality and not the body. 25

According to Mulla Sadra, man possesses the appropriate faculties which are capable of perceiving and experiencing the three different levels of being. His external senses enable him to experience the corporeal world, his imaginative faculty, the imaginal world and his intellect, the spiritual world. The imaginative faculty (al-mutakhayilah) enables man to perceive the forms or images of the imaginal world while still living in this sensible world, provided that it is relatively independent of the influences of the body and the senses such as the case for example with prophets and saints. However, in the posthumous state when souls are in the barzakh of the imaginal world, every soul will possess the power to create external forms consistent with their natures and states of being. Each soul can create the pleasures it receives from within itself or its being without the need of the external organs or material instruments. The experiences of paradise and hell are the results of the soul creating the forms that are within its power. 26 For example, the pure souls have the creative power to bring into being all the beautiful and pleasant forms and the impure souls, the power to bring into being, ugly and unpleasant forms. And these souls either experience felicity or pain as a result of the forms which they create. However, paradise and hell must not be regarded as merely the subjective experiences of the individual soul. Paradise and hell exist objectively in the imaginal world. 27

If in the sensible world, the imaginative faculty requires a material instrument or receptacle to create or produce forms or images; in the imaginal world, the imaginative faculty has no need for a material instrument or receptacle to produce forms and images. The imaginal forms and images can be produced on the power or strength of the imaginative faculty alone since they do not require a material substratum in order to exist. 28 In the sensible world, the perceived or imagined form is qualitatively different from the existent thing that is perceived or created. In the imaginal world however, there does not exist a disparity between the objective existence of an imaginal form and the form that is perceived or imagined. The objective existence of an imaginal form is identical to its represented or perceived form by the soul. 29 Thus, the experiences of pleasant imaginal forms are more delightful than that of the experience of sensible forms and equally the experience of unpleasant imaginal forms more painful than their sensible counterparts. The difference in degree of joy and suffering is due to the more intense and simple level of being of the imaginal world relative to the less intense and more dispersed level of being of the sensible world.

In Mulla Sadra’s perspective, knowledge and being are closely related. The close inter-relation between knowledge and being has profound implications for man's becoming and destiny. If in this sensible world, man requires a material instrument and substratum to create the forms or images that he conceives; in the posthumous state when souls are in the intermediate world of Image-Exemplars (‘alam al-mithal), he does not require material instruments and substratum to create forms. Imaginal forms can be objectively existent without a material substratum. Whatever forms the human soul creates whether they be beautiful or ugly, can be immediately objectified. There no longer exists an ontological disparity between that which is perceived or imagined and the existent thing itself. The nature and quality of the forms created by the soul are determined by the nature or knowledge of the individual soul. The good and pure souls will create beautiful forms consistent with the nature of their souls and the bad and wicked souls will create the ugly forms in agreement with the knowledge possessed by their souls. The condition of being of the individual soul in the posthumous state is the cumulative result of the acts of being of the individual soul in this world. At the moment of death when the immortal and immaterial soul is disintegrated from the corporeal body; the soul will project an imaginal body for itself. The imaginal body is the body which is acquired by the individual soul on the basis of all its modes of being in this world. The principle of human identity and individuality is determined by the soul and not the body. Thus, in Mulla Sadra's view, the body that is resurrected in the posthumous state is the subtle or imaginal body. It is the imaginal body that must grow to maturity in the posthumous state and eventually experience another death which is also a birth. It is the death to the intermediate imaginal world and a birth into the spiritual or intelligible world. The creation of the imaginal body by the soul constitutes the lesser resurrection (al-qiyama al- sughra) and the creation of the spiritual body, the greater resurrection (al-qiyama al-kubra). Therefore, the human soul experiences three births and three modes of existences. The goal of creation is to return to its source or God. Every created being manifests the attributes of God relative to the degree of intensity of Being present in it. The immutable archetypes which are the self-manifesting forms of the divine attributes are also the models of perfection of the individual species. The return of creation or of an existent to God is the return of the particular individual to its archetype or ‘lord of the specie’ (rabb al-naw’)

In the case of man, the return to God is by means of his conscious knowledge of the attributes of God and the deliberate cultivation and loving assimilation of the character traits of God’s attributes (al-takhalluq bi’l-sifat al-ilahiyah) in his being. When the individual human being identifies himself with God’s attributes through realized knowledge, he becomes the self-conscious form or image or theophany which reflects God’s attributes. Since man is an ontologically unitive and synthetic being, his manifestation of God’s attributes is also unitive and synthetic in nature. However, it is only the Universal Man (al-insan al-kamil) who actualises the potentiality of being a total theophany of God’s attributes since it is only in him that all of God’s attributes are manifested fully and in a unitive or ontologically comprehensive (jam’) manner. Consequently, for Mulla Sadra, every Universal Man is a specie or an archetype by himself. 30 With the actualisation of the Universal Man, the goal of creation which arises from God’s love and knowledge of Himself is fulfilled. The Universal Man is a self-conscious and self-reflective, and ontologically comprehensive theophany of God. Every individual Universal Man represents a definite and unique possibility of the infinite ontological possibilities of God’s manifestation. 

Mulla Sadra’s Synthesis of Principles and Ideas Drawn from Revelation, Intellectual Illuminations and Philosophical Reasoning. 

In his treatment of the human soul and its process of becoming and return to God, Mulla Sadra has drawn numerous principles and doctrines from the Quran and Hadith, the Mashsha’i and Ishraqi schools of philosophy and Sufism. In Mulla Sadra’s perspective, through the process of transubstantial motion, the soul which first appears as the body, becomes the vegetative soul, the animal soul and finally, the human soul. The soul continues to undergo transubstantial motion in its journey of ascent of the various levels of being which is also an increase in the intensity of its being until it is able to disengage itself completely from all matter, both gross and subtle, and return to Pure Being as an archetype or unique specie unto itself, reflecting all the attributes of Being in full intensity and clarity.

Although Mulla Sadra’s description of the journey and the process involved is peculiar to his perspective and philosophical views, he has drawn many ideas, principles and doctrines from diverse sources to substantiate his doctrines of psychology and eschatology. For example, Mulla Sadra’s discussions of the vegetative, animal and human soul and their various faculties and stages of development, are drawn from the Aristotelian and Mashsha’i views of the subject. Like the Peripatetic philosophers, Mulla Sadra considers the vegetative soul to constitute the nutritive, growth and reproductive faculties; the animal soul, the motive and perceptive faculties and the human soul, the practical and theoretical faculties.

However, Mulla Sadra differs from the Peripatetic view on the question of the relation of the soul and the body. The Mashsha’i philosophers consider the immaterial and immortal soul as the entelechy or form of the natural body and the immanent principle which organizes the latter. The relation between the soul and the body is likened to that between a pilot and his ship. 31 In Mulla Sadra’s perspective, the soul first appears with the body and through the process of transubstantial motion attains catharsis (tajrid) and independence from the body. It is the soul which individualises the body and the relation between the body and the soul is analogous to the relation between an object and the shadow it projects.

Although Mulla Sadra agrees with the Peripatetic view that the soul is the entelechy of the body, since body in Mulla Sadra’s philosophy is not limited to the corporeal or natural realm only but extends to the imaginal and spiritual, the soul is not the entelechy or form of the natural body only but of all subsequent bodies which it projects. In this respect, the soul is independent and transcendent of the natural body. Another major difference between the Peripatetic view of the soul and Mulla Sadra’s view concerns the imaginative faculty. If the Peripatetics consider only the intellectual aspect of the human soul to be immortal and to survive physical death, Mulla Sadra regards the imaginative faculty also to be independent of the body and to have its own form of life upon its separation from the body. The doctrine of the independence of the imaginative faculty from the body is central to Mulla Sadra’s eschatological views. This doctrine is not original with Mulla Sadra. The Sufis, notably Ibn al-‘Arabi have expounded at length the doctrine of the independence of the imaginative faculty from the body and its essential role in the posthumous state, specifically in the intermediate world of Image-Exemplars (‘alam al-mithal).

According to Ibn al-‘Arabi, in the imaginal world, the imaginative faculty takes the place of sense perception and it is through the imaginative faculty that the individual experiences the eshatological events described in the Quran and Hadith. 32 The imaginative faculty has the creative power (hamm) to existentiate imaginal forms both pleasant and unpleasant, and experiences happiness or misery relative to the forms it existentiates. As already mentioned, the experience of Paradise and Hell are partly due to the creative power of the imaginative faculty to existentiate its own imaginal forms. However, Paradise and Hell are not merely subjective since they exist objectively and independently of the individual souls. This situation is similiar to our experience in the sensible, empirical world. We live in an objective world of external realities and at the same time in a private world of our own creation or determination which is the outcome of our individual subjectivities.

Following Suhrawardi, Mulla Sadra views the imaginal forms to be of two types: one, the imaginal forms existentiated by the individual soul and two, the objective imaginal forms existing in the imaginal world. The former constitutes the lesser imaginal world and the latter the greater imaginal world. It should be noted here, that Suhrawardi is the first to postulate explicitly the existence of the imaginal realm which is intermediate between the spiritual world and the sensible world. 33 In Suhrawardi’s perspective it is in the imaginal realm that the resurrection of the body takes place and the various eschatological events described in the Quran and Hadith. However, it is Ibn al-‘Arabi who expounded in an elaborate and definitive manner, the independence and creative power of the imaginative faculty and its consequent role in the imaginal world. 34

Mulla Sadra accepted both Suhrawardi’s doctrine of the intermediate world and Ibn al-‘Arabi's doctrine of the imaginative faculty and incorporated them into his psychological and eschatological views. In addition, Mulla Sadra developed further the logical implications of their respective doctrines to work out a more comprehensive perspective. For example, if for Suhrawardi, ‘the principle of higher possibility’ (imkan alashraf) means that the multiplicity which exists in the lower sensible world must first exist in the higher spiritual world, in Mulla Sadra this principle is further refined and made to denote that nothing can exist at the lowest level unless it has passed through the upper levels of being and conversely, nothing moves to a higher grade of being without passing through the intermediate level. 35 With this, Mulla Sadra is not only able to establish a clear and definite inter-relation between the three levels of being but also to postulate the doctrine that every quiddity has a triple existence.

Conclusion 

By integrating the Peripatetic view of the various kinds of souls and their faculties with Suhrawardi’s doctrine of the existence of an intermediate imaginal world and Ibn al-‘Arabi's gnostic teachings of the creative power of the imaginative faculty to existentiate imaginal forms in the posthumous state, Mulla Sadra is able to expound a comprehensive theory of the human soul and its stages of developments and actualisation in its return journey to God. The synthesis of these various views of the human soul both philosophical and gnostic is made by Mulla Sadra within the parameters of the teachings of the Quran and Hadith. Infact, it is in order to fully comprehend certain statements in the Quran and Hadith about the human soul which has descended from the World of the Divine Command (amr) and of which very little knowledge is divulged to man, 36 and the certainty and inevitability of its return to God 37 that Mulla Sadra has drawn ideas from diverse sources. For example, it is in order to explain the Quranic descriptions of Paradise and Hell which are expressed often-times in the language of sensible experiences that Mulla Sadra accepted and synthesized Suhrawardi’s and Ibn al-‘Arabi's doctrines of the intermediate imaginal world and the creative power and role of the imaginative faculty in the posthumous state.

Mulla Sadra’s synthesis of various teachings is not merely speculative but is also the outcome of his own intellectual insights and illuminations of the matter. 38 Like Suhrawardi and Ibn al-‘Arabi, Mulla Sadra claims personal experiences of the imaginal realm. Therefore, their respective views and Mulla Sadra’s synthesis are fundamentally based on experiences of the imaginal realm and illuminative insights of the nature of the human soul. Furthermore, Mulla Sadra constantly verifies his view of the human soul and eschatology with the Quranic statements of them. Therefore, the Quran and Hadith provide both the premisses of his doctrines on the soul and eschatology, as well as the verification and confirmation of the legitimacy of his interpretations or understanding of the subject. Hence, Mulla Sadra is able to expound his own original view of the soul and its becoming and return to God within the teachings of the Quran and Hadith, as well as the diverse and rich legacy of Islamic philosophical schools and Sufism. 

References 

  •  ‘Ali, ‘Abdullah Yusuf. The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an. New Edition with Revised Translation and Commentary. Maryland: Amana Coporation, 1994. Chittick, William. ‘Death and the World of Imagination: Ibn al-‘Arabi’s Eschatology,’ Muslim World (Jan. 1988): 51-82. 
  • Corbin, Henry. En Islam Iranien, IV. Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1972.
  • Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth. Princeton:The University Press, 1977.
  • Moris, Zailan. Revelation, Intellectual Intuition and Reason in the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra: An Analysis of the al-Hikmah al- ‘Arshiyyah. London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. 
  • Morris, James W. Wisdom of the Throne. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981. 
  • Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Sadr al-Din Shirazi and His Transcendent Theosophy. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1978.
  • Rahman, Fazlur. The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra. Albany: State University of New York, 1975. 
  • ‘Dream, Imagination and ‘Alam al-Mithal,’ Islamic Studies, Vol.3, No.2, (June 1964). 
  • Shirazi, Sadr al-Din. Shawahid al-rububiyyah, (ed.) Ashtiyani, S.J. Meshed: The University Press, 1967. 
  • Al-Hikmah al-‘Arshiyyah. Isfahan: Shahriyar Books, 1962. 


Endnotes 

1 For more information on Mulla Sadra’s life, works and thought, See for example Nasr, S.H., Sadr al-Din Shirazi and His Transcendent Theosophy (Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy), 1978.
2 For a detailed treatment on this subject, see Moris, Z., Revelation, Intellectual Intuition and Reason in the Philosophy of Mulla Sadra: An Analysis of the al-Hikmah al-‘Arshiyyah (London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon), 2003.
3 The material of these discussions are drawn from ibid., 105-111,114-115 and 128- 131.
4 For more information on this principle, see for example, Ibid., 95-99.
5 Shirazi, Sadr al-Din, Shawahid al-rububiyyah, (ed.) Ashtiyani, S.J. (Meshed: The University Press, 1967), 229. Also Morris, J. W. Wisdom of the Throne (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1981), 132.
6 Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 146.
7 Ibid., 137, 139.
8 Shawahid al-rububiyyah, 193.
9 Ibid., 193-94.
10 Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 148.
11 Shawahid al-rububiyyah, 196.
12 Ibid., 213.
13 Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 158-59.
14 Ibid., 187.
15 Ibid., 146, 160.
16 Corbin, H. En Islam Iranien, IV (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1972), 110.
17 Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 161.
18 See Corbin, H. En Islam Iranien, IV, 108.
19 Corbin, H. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth (Princeton: The University Press, 1977), 127.
20 Ibid.
21 Ibid., 164-65.
22 Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 142-43.
23 See Corbin, En Islam Iranien, IV, 118.
24 Ibid.
25 Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 171.
26 Ibid., 164.
27 Ibid., 150.
28 Ibid., 138.
29 Ibid., 163.
30 See Rahman, F. The Philosophy of Mulla Sadra (Albany: State University of New York, 1975), 249.
31 Rahman, F. Avicenna’s Psychology (Westport: Hyperion Press, 1981), 6-7.
32 See Chittick, W., ‘Death and the World of Imagination: Ibn al- ‘Arabi’s Eschatology,’ Muslim World (Jan. 1988): 51-82.
33 Corbin, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth, 78-80.
34 Rahman, F. ‘Dream, Imagination and ‘Alam al-Mithal,’ Islamic Studies, Vol.3, No.2, (June 1964): 171.
35 Ibid., 175.
36 Q.17:85.
37 Q.21:117.
38 In the al-Hikmah al-‘Arshiyyah, Mulla Sadra states explicitly that “knowledge of the soul can only be acquired through illumination from the Lamp-niche of Prophecy (mishkat al-nubuwwah) and through following the lights of Revelation and Prophethood...”, Morris, Wisdom of the Throne, 131.